Mauritania

Economics, Political, and Trade Overview

Source: Feb 10, 2022 Economist Intelligence Unit

Mauritania - In Short.

Overview of Mauritania

The Berber and Bafour people were among the first to settle in what is now Mauritania. Originally a nomadic people, they were among the first in recorded history to convert from a nomadic to agricultural lifestyle. These groups account for roughly one third of Mauritania’s ethnic makeup. The remainder of Mauritania’s ethnic groups derive from former enslaved peoples and sub-Saharan ethnic groups originating mainly from the Senegal River Valley. These three groups constitute a strict caste system with deep ethnic divides that still exists today.Mauritania achieved independence from France in 1960. Mauritania initially began as a single-party authoritarian regime and saw 49 years of dictatorships, flawed elections, failed attempts at democracy, and military coups. Following the last coup in 2008, led by Ould Abdel AZIZ, AZIZ was elected president in 2009 and reelected in 2014. International observers recognized the elections as free and fair. Following his two terms, AZIZ became the first Mauritanian president to step down and observe a democratic transfer of power. This solidified Mauritania’s status as an emerging democracy. After winning 52% of the vote, Mohamed Ould Cheikh GHAZOUANI was inaugurated in 2019. The country is working to address the vestiges of slavery, which was officially abolished in 1981 but not criminalized until 2007. Between 2005 and 2011, Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM) launched a series of attacks killing American and foreign tourists and aid workers, attacking diplomatic and government facilities, and ambushing Mauritanian soldiers and gendarmes. Although Mauritania has not seen an attack since 2011, AQIM and similar groups remain active in the Sahel region.
Value
Country Full Name
Mauritania
Country Code
MRT
Region
Sub-Saharan Africa
Income Group
Lower middle income
Currency Unit
GDP
7913680231
Population
4649660
Land Area
1030700
Net National Income Per Capita
1392.338373
GDP per Capita (PPP)
5390.086099

2020 GDP Growth Rate (Current USD)

2020 GDP Per Capita (Current USD)

2020 Urbanization Rate (%)

2020 Total Fertility Rate (Birth Per Woman)

Doing Business Score (100= Most Friendly)

Mauritania - Economic

Economy of Mauritania

Mauritania’s economy is dominated by extractive industries (oil and mines), fisheries, livestock, agriculture, and services. Half the population still depends on farming and raising livestock, even though many nomads and subsistence farmers were forced into the cities by recurrent droughts in the 1970s, 1980s, 2000s, and 2017. Recently, GDP growth has been driven largely by foreign investment in the mining and oil sectors.Mauritania’s extensive mineral resources include iron ore, gold, copper, gypsum, and phosphate rock, and exploration is ongoing for tantalum, uranium, crude oil, and natural gas. Extractive commodities make up about three-quarters of Mauritania’s total exports, subjecting the economy to price swings in world commodity markets. Mining is also a growing source of government revenue, rising from 13% to 30% of total revenue from 2006 to 2014. The nation’s coastal waters are among the richest fishing areas in the world, and fishing accounts for about 15% of budget revenues, 45% of foreign currency earnings. Mauritania processes a total of 1,800,000 tons of fish per year, but overexploitation by foreign and national fleets threaten the sustainability of this key source of revenue.The economy is highly sensitive to international food and extractive commodity prices. Other risks to Mauritania’s economy include its recurring droughts, dependence on foreign aid and investment, and insecurity in neighboring Mali, as well as significant shortages of infrastructure, institutional capacity, and human capital. In December 2017, Mauritania and the IMF agreed to a three year agreement under the Extended Credit Facility to foster economic growth, maintain macroeconomic stability, and reduce poverty. Investment in agriculture and infrastructure are the largest components of the country’s public expenditures.

Unemployment Rate

Inflation Rate

Mauritania - GDP Composition

GDP Composiiton & Value Added of Mauritania

Last Updated: Jan, 2021, Updated For 2020.

Mauritania - GDP, Value Added

Demographics of Mauritania

with most of the country being a desert, vast areas of the country, particularly in the central, northern, and eastern areas, are without sizeable population clusters; half the population lives in or around the coastal capital of Nouakchott; smaller clusters are found near the southern border with Mali and Senegal as shown in this population distribution map
Geographic Location

Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between Senegal and Western Sahara

Races

Black Moors (Haratines - Arab-speaking descendants of African origin who are or were enslaved by white Moors) 40%, White Moors (of Arab-Berber descent, known as Beydane) 30%, Sub-Saharan Mauritanians (non-Arabic speaking, largely resident in or originating from the Senegal River Valley, including Halpulaar, Fulani, Soninke, Wolof, and Bambara ethnic groups) 30%

Languages

Arabic (official and national), Pular, Soninke, Wolof (all national languages), French; note - the spoken Arabic in Mauritania differs considerably from the modern standard Arabic used for official written purposes or in the media; the Mauritanian dialect, which incorporates many Berber words, is referred to as Hassaniyamajor-language

Religion

Muslim (official) 100%

Dependency & Expectancy of Mauritania

Last Updated: Jan, 2021

Dependency Ratio

Expectancy

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Mauritania - Social Media Briefing

Mauritania - Social Media & Social Commerce

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Politics & Policies of Mauritania

2021 Policies Overview

Updated Coming in March 2021 after our team finish summarizing countries policy.

International Organizations

ABEDA, ACP, AfDB, AFESD, AMF, AMU, AU, CAEU (candidate), EITI (compliant country), FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO (pending member), ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAS, MIGA, MIUSMA, NAM, OIC, OIF, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Import of Mauritania

Export of Mauritania

Import Destination

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